In this study, it's considered that an 18000 lb; singleaxle load applied to the pavement on two sets of dual tires. The dual tires are represented as two circular plates each .
be used to determine the average number of 18kip single axle load applications in the design lane when designing 2lane highways and 80% when designing highways with two or more lanes in each direction.
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Jul 05, 2013· Pavement Design Guidelines (Flexible Pavement) 12 Figure 2 Cross section of the designed pavement 13. Pavement Design Guidelines (Flexible Pavement) 13 10. Glossary of pavement Terms Asphalt Concrete Bituminous concrete/ Asphalt Concrete is a dense graded premixed bituminous mix which is well compacted to form a high quality pavement surface.
v = Vertical Dynamic Load (lbs) θ = D 33 x V D w x 100 D = Wheel diameter (in) V = Speed (MPH) P = Static Load (lbs) – Larger wheels impose less influence • Additional dynamic loads from impacts such as caused by wheel flat spots, rail discontinuities ( frog flangeways), track transitions ( bridge approaches), track condition, etc.
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In general, singleunit trucks have average VMT much lower than truck combinations. For example, average VMT for 2axle singleunit trucks is 11,000 miles, or about 30 miles per day. The 3 and 4axle singleunit trucks are slightly higher at about 40 miles and 60 miles per day, respectively.
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equivalent single axle load (ESAL) A numerical factor that expresses the relationship of a given axle load to another axle load in terms of the relative effects of the two loads on the serviceability of a pavement structure. Often expressed in terms of 18,000pound (80 kN) single axle loads.
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– Standard axle load: – The number of passes of any given axle load can be converted into the number of passes of the standard axle load based on the concept Load Equivalent Factor (LEF): damage by axle load A damage by a standard axle load =>LEF of axle load A 18,000 lbs or 18 kips = 80 kN Single axle with dual tires LEF = Factors influencing LEF:
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Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL) means equating the damage to a pavement structure caused by the passage of a nonstandard load to a standard 80 kN axle load. Fine Aggregate means that portion of aggregate material pa ssing the mm sieve when tested according to LS602. Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) means hot mixed, hot laid asphaltic conc rete ...